Page of 1. Filtered by:. Previous template Next. T2b11 26th FebruaryPM. I recently received my mtFull results indicating a haplogroup designation of T2b I am having a hard time finding extensive information on this haplogroup.
Can anybody link me to info on the age and origin of T2b11? Tags: None. Last edited by Germanica ; 24th MarchAM. Comment Post Cancel. Eupedia has a page for mt haplogroup T. The subclade T2b11 is mentioned in one section "found in the North Caucasus" :. Very interesting reading and somewhat over my headthanks!What is a haplogroup and how does it pertain to your family tree?
Click Here to listen to the weekly podcast. At its essence, a haplogroup is an ancestral clan. Your haplogroup tells you where your ancestors came from deep back in time.
Haplogroup T (mtDNA)
There are also male and female haplogroups, so you can see where your male and female sides of the family originated back in pre-historic times. As with Y-DNA which traces the male line from father to son and mtDNA which traces the female line from mother to daughterhaplogroups also follow straight male and female descendancy lines. Your haplogroup will appear in the area your clan was located when it split off from the original African family to which we all belong. Initially, there was only one haplogroup, and it was in Africa.
As African tribes moved off the continent and went to various other places on the planet, their DNA mutated and the number of haplogroups increased. New haplogroups are formed even today when a gene mutation occurs in someone from a particular ancestral clan. However, it takes generations for enough people to carry the mutation for it to be prevalent enough for it to be considered a haplogroup.
Therefore, any haplogroups that start forming today will not be recognized as new ones for centuries. Just as new haplogroups are being formed today, many have died out over the course of human history. The haplogroups that exist today originated with people whose descendants were very successful at reproducing in large families.
Most haplogroup sub-groups are plentiful. The only group with less than three sub-groups is the Native American male group, which only has two sub-groups. Basically, haplogroups chart the clans from which the modern human race originated. Haplogroups are names alphabetically in order of discovery. The sub-groups of haplogroups are named with letter and number combinations indicating where and when in time they were discovered, which main haplogroup they descend from, and sometimes even the very specific small geographical area where their earliest members lived.
Some haplogroup sub-groups can even be traced back to named individuals if the mutation that created them originated in the more recent past. For example, the infamous Celt, Niall of the Nine Hostages, is known to be the originator of a sub-group of a haplogroup within the past years, and some people can use their sub-group to prove their descent from him.
Right now, haplogroups are the only way to trace your family tree back to the time before surnames were invented. For example, there is a known haplogroup of people who originated in France, and who are widely believed to be the people who made the famous cave paintings in the French town of Chauvet.
You can look at a maternal or paternal haplogroup and sub-group and see if it matches with the haplogroup and sub-group of the cave painters. If it does, you know you are descended from this illustrious and famous group of people.
If you are interested at all in where your family originated deep in time, before the age of records, then haplogroups should be of great fascination for you. This is something that was not possible before the age of DNA testing. Established in and has been involved in helping genealogy researchers for over 25 years. Click Here to request a Free Lookup. Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email.Previously, Native American mitochondrial haplogroups had been identified.
As DNA testing has become more mainstream, many people want to see if they have Native ancestry. Within those five major haplogroups are found many Native as well as non-Native sub-haplogroups. Over the last 15 years, researchers have been documenting haplogroups found within the Native community although progress has been slow for various reasons, including but not limited to the lack of participants with proven Native heritage on the relevant matrilineal genealogical line.
The difference is indicative of directional mating involving preferentially immigrant men and Native American women. Miguel Vilar announced that the Genographic Project data base would be made available for qualified affiliate researchers outside of academia.
There is, of course, an application process and aspiring affiliate researchers are required to submit a research project plan for consideration. In fact, my proposal likely arrived in Washington DC before Dr.
Vilar did! One of my original personal goals for genetic genealogy was to identify my Native American ancestors. Some of both of these types of research has occurred, but not enough. Slowly, over the years, additional sub-haplogroups have been added for both the Y and mitochondrial Native DNA. In essence, whether you are an advocate of one migration or multiple migration waves, the dates of 10, to 25, years ago are a safe range for migration from Asia, across the then-present land-mass, Beringia, into the Americas.
Recently another alternative suggesting that the migration may have occurred by water, in multiple waves, following coastlines, has been proposed as well — but following the same basic pathway.
It makes little difference whether the transportation method was foot or kayak, or both, or one or more migration events. Our interest lies in identifying which haplogroups arrived with the Asians who became the indigenous people of the Americas.
Given that the Native, First Nations or aboriginal people, by whatever name you call them, descended from Asia, across the Beringian land bridge sometime between roughly 10, and 25, years ago, depending on which academic model you choose to embrace, none of the base haplogroups shown above are entirely Native. Only portions, meaning specific subgroups, are known to be Native, while other subgroups are Asian and often European as well.
The descendants of the base haplogroups, all born in Asia, expanded North, South, East and West across the globe. One by one, as more people test and we obtain additional data, we solve these mysteries.
Haplogroup X2b4 was found in the descendants of Radegonde Lambert, an Acadian woman born sometime in the s and found in Acadia present day Nova Scotia married to Jean Blanchard as an adult.Mitochondria are small organelles that lie in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, such as those of humans. Their primary purpose is to provide energy to the cell.
Mitochondria are thought to be the vestigial remains of symbiotic bacteria that were once free living. The overwhelming majority of a human's DNA is contained in chromosomes in the nucleus of the cell, but mtDNA is an exception. Individuals inherit their cytoplasm and the organelles it contains exclusively from their mothers, as these are derived from the ovum egg cell only, not from the sperm.
Males inherit mtDNA from their mothers but do not pass it on to their children. Consequently when a mutation arises in the mtDNA molecule, the mutation is passed on in a direct female line of descent. These rare mutations are derived from copying mistakes — when the DNA is copied it is possible that a single mistake occurs in the DNA sequence, an outcome which is called a single-nucleotide polymorphism SNP.
It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Genetic genealogy". This page contains changes which are not marked for translation. Other languages:.I2a1b: Bosnia and Herzegovina. The haplogroup can be found all over Europe and reaches its maximum frequency in the Dinaric Alps Balkans. A study found haplogroup I2a in 13, year old remains from the Azilian culture from Grotte du Bichonmodern Switzerland. In a study published in Naturethe remains of six individuals from Motala ascribed to the Kongemose culture were successfully analyzed.
With regards to Y-DNAtwo individuals were ascribed to haplogroup I2a1bone individual was ascribed to haplogroup I2a1and one individual was ascribed to haplogroup I2c. The I-P The subclade divergence for I-P Haplogroup I-L L, L I-L is very rare, but has been found in two persons from Germany and one from Poland.
Several groups have determined the common occurrence of this subclade in the South Slavic -speaking populations to be the result of "pre-Slavic" paleolithic settlement in the region. Of historical note, both haplogroups I-M and I-M appear at a low frequency in the historical regions of Bithynia and Galatia in Turkey. The subclade divergence for M occurred I-M has been found almost exclusively among the population of Great Britainsuggesting that the clade may have arisen in that island.
I-M is comparatively rare in Ireland except in the north-east.
In regard to north-east Ireland, the presence of this subclade "provides some tentative evidence of ancient flow with eastern areas that could support the idea that the La Tene culture was accompanied by some migration. Around Its age is estimated around 7, years old. In Northwest Sicily it can also be found; this is believed to be due to remnants of a Norman settlement. Called Continental 3. Continental 3 has a wide distribution. It may have been disseminated in part by the Goths.
It is nearly absent from Scandinavia and Scotland. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article needs attention from an expert in Human Genetic History. The specific problem is: Nomenclature of haplogroup s and subclades. WikiProject Human Genetic History may be able to help recruit an expert. November This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. April This section does not cite any sources.Human populations, along with those of many other species, are thought to have contracted into a number of refuge areas at the height of the last Ice Age.
Parts of the Near East, such as the Levant, were also continuously inhabited throughout the Last Glacial Maximum, but unlike western and eastern Europe, no archaeological or genetic evidence for Late Glacial expansions into Europe from the Near East has hitherto been discovered. The last Ice Age, which ended Investigating these glacial refugia has long been a favorite pursuit of phylogeographers.
The genetic diversities of many species across a huge taxonomic range have been mapped to various putative refugia, often but not always at low latitudes. For humans, the issue is further complicated by the possibility of other dispersals, stimulated, for example, by technological change or social factors rather than climatic oscillation, and models were first provided by archaeologists; in particular, in the case of Europe, by Dolukhanov.
These two major zones were dominated by radically different settlement patterns: cave sites in the south and west, and open-air sites in the east. Substantial archaeological evidence has accumulated for Dolukhanov's basic model. From the genetic point of view, it has been suggested that the second principal component of classical marker variation in Europe may have been formed by the Late Glacial expansion, 12 and there has been evidence from mtDNA for human expansions from the Franco-Cantabrian refugium; namely, signatures in haplogroups V, 12,13 H1, H3, 14,15 H5, 16 and U5b1b 17,18 as well as in haplogroup U5b3, indicating dispersal from the Italian Peninsula, 19 and in U4 and U5a, indicating expansion from the East European Plain.
There is, however, another potential refugium for European genetic variation, which is not present in Dolukhanov's model and does not appear to have been considered seriously by either archaeologists or geneticists. Studies have established that populations persisted throughout the last glaciation in parts of the Near East, such as the Levant 36 and coastal southern Turkey, and that genetic variation in the Near East encompasses much of the diversity now found in Europe.
For example, the first principal component of variation in classical markers in western Eurasia has often been regarded as evidence for a demic diffusion of people into Europe during the Neolithic period, 37 and various mtDNA and MSY lineages thought to originate in the Near East have been proposed as markers of the Neolithic dispersal. We generally follow this definition here, but we treat the South Caucasus as a distinct region and include Egypt with the rest of North Africa.
We targeted new J and new T complete mtDNA sequences, focusing particularly on Mediterranean Europe, the Caucasus, and the Near East, selected on the basis of their control-region variation and subhaplogroup status, as identified by restriction analysis, combining them with previously available sequences in a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis.
To significantly increase the size and range of the database available to us and thereby enhance the robustness of our conclusions, we then used these data to infer haplogroup status for sequences in the large control-region database now available, and analyzed these data phylogeographically. We amplified and sequenced the mtDNAs as previously described. We examined the geographic distribution of haplogroups J and T and their subclades using the HVS-I database, taking into account HVS-II information where available, and using the whole-genome tree to classify as many as possible into subclades Tables S3 and S4.
We identified likely founder lineages by using basic phylogeographic principles, as used before for the founder analysis of HVS-I data. The trees are based on the maximum-parsimony phylogenetic tree of complete mtDNA sequences shown in detail in Figures S1 and S2.
Clades and subclades have been colored according to their inferred geographic origin. Ages are shown for all J and T subclades until the fourth hierarchical level and, in general, only when encompassing at least five individuals. Coalescence ages are reported according to ML estimates.
The geographic distribution of its subclades supports the view that haplogroup J initially diversified in the Near East. Although it is found in parts of the Near East at low frequencies, the HVS-I network indicates that these are either very common or tip lineages, suggesting that they are the result of more recent back-migration from Europe.
The whole-genome tree shows a clear star-like pattern with at least 12 basal subclades, most dating to 10—15 ka ago. Haplogroup J, often identified as J1 and in a few cases as J1c, has been found in Neolithic remains from northern Spain, France, Germany, and Sweden and in a Mesolithic specimen from Germany dated to 4. It is predominantly Near Eastern but has European subclades J2a1 and J2b1, both of which date to 15—16 ka ago. The Near Eastern and Arabian parts of both J2a and J2b also spill into northeastern Africa and, in the case of the former, northwestern Africa as well; J2a2b is found across northwestern Africa and even as far afield as Siberia, and J2a2d is also found in Algeria and the Canary Islands.
Like haplogroup J, haplogroup T falls into two distinct subclades, T1 and T2. However, the structure of these subclades is more complex than that of the five nested subclades found in J. Both T1 and T2 include several paraphyletic lineages, and whereas T1 falls into just two nested subclades, T2 displays at least nine, although a single one, T2b, encompasses about half of T2 among Europeans.
The geographic distribution of T1 is extraordinary—lineages are distributed, albeit at varying frequencies, across its range throughout the tree, from northwestern Africa throughout Europe, the Caucasus, and the Near East, into western India, and across central Asia into Siberia. Curiously, despite the age of T1a1a1, it has not been seen in any Neolithic remains to date.
The whole-genome data show that about three-quarters of T2 variation in Europe can be classified into subclades through the use of HVS-I data, but less than half of the variation in the Near East and the Caucasus can be so classified.
A clear example is T2b4, which includes a small derived subclade, identifiable in the HVS-I network, which appears to have spread into the Gulf region and further into Nepal, but the existence of several other lineages either matching common and diverse European lineages or those derived from predominantly European clusters throughout the HVS-I network points to multiple migrations into the Near East from Europe.Hervor dying after the Battle of the Goths and Huns.
A painting by Peter Nicolai Arbo, a Norwegian historical painter. The Greenlandic Poem of Atli st. Oxford : Oxford University Press. I just love ancient DNA.
Recently, a Viking warrior long presumed to be male has been positively identified as female through DNA analysis. The paper titled A female Viking warrior confirmed by genomics by Hedenstiera-Jonson et al provides details. Oral history tells us of female Viking warriors, but mostly, those stories have been dismissed as mythology. A Viking warrior grave excavated in Birka, Sweden in the s was originally identified as a female.
That finding was initially dismissed in light of the extensive warrior burial artifacts. The skeleton was presumed to be a warrior male due to extensive funerary objects indicating a high ranking individual.
This type of reasoning takes away the agency of the buried female. As long as the sex is male, the weaponry in the grave not only belong to the interred but also reflects his status as warrior, whereas a female sex has raised doubts, not only regarding her ascribed role but also in her association to the grave goods.
A great deal can be told about skeletal remains through their bones — and certain traits indicate males or females. DNA was determined to be the only way to resolve the question. Thank goodness this avenue was pursued and was productive. The objective of this study has been to confirm the sex and the affinity of an individual buried in a well-furnished warrior grave Bj in the Viking Age town of Birka, Sweden. Previously, based on the material and historical records, the male sex has been associated with the gender of the warrior and such was the case with Bj An earlier osteological classification of the individual as female was considered controversial in a historical and archaeological context.
A genomic confirmation of the biological sex of the individual was considered necessary to solve the issue. The genomic results revealed the lack of a Y-chromosome and thus a female biological sex, and the mtDNA analyses support a single-individual origin of sampled elements.Y-DNA Haplogroup in world
The genetic affinity is close to present-day North Europeans, and within Sweden to the southern and south-central region.